Oxidative stress has been implicated in the progression of joint disease and other age-related degenerative diseases, which are most often associated with inflammation (1). Most treatments with anti-inflammatories help to relieve pain, but don’t deal with the underlying problem of free radicals. Studies in humans and in vitro have demonstrated astaxanthin reduces various inflammatory responses that are known to cause pain and inflammation (2; 3). Astaxanthin has been shown in elderly dogs to lower inflammatory markers (4). The results showed improved mitochondrial function by alleviating oxidative damage to cellular DNA and protein.
- Quinonez-Flores et al. Oxidative Stress Relevance in the Pathogenesis of the Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Systematic Review. BioMed Research International. (2016) 14 pages. REF
- Park et al. Astaxanthin decreased oxidative stress and inflammation and enhanced immune response in humans. Nutrition & Metabolism (2010) 7: 10 pages. REF
- Speranza et al. Astaxanthin Treatment Reduced Oxidative Induced Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Secretion in U937: SHP-1 as a Novel Biological Target. (2012) Mar. Drugs 10: 890-899. REF
- Park et al. Astaxanthin modulates age-associated mitochondrial dysfunction in healthy dogs. J Anim Sci. (2013) 91:268-275. REF