Within your muscle tissues, the mitochondria are the powerhouses that produce up to 95% of the body’s energy. Unfortunately, this energy production also produces additional free radicals. The harder your workout, the more free radicals you produce, resulting in tired and sore muscles. Astaxanthin targets the mitochondria, working to minimize the impact of these free radicals and reducing damaging oxidation and inflammation. In a 2011 human trial, the group taking astaxanthin had significantly improved cycling time trial over the control group. In addition, astaxanthin supplementation led to increased power output over the control group (1). In human trial involving soccer players, training was associated with an increase in free radicals and oxidative stress (2). Supplementation with astaxanthin prevented exercise induced free radical production and depletion of non-enzymatic antioxidants. In another trial, soccer players taking astaxanthin showed an increased mucosal immune response, reduced muscle damage and lowered inflammation caused by intense physical exercise (3).